Change Management Model Guide

    Changes within organizations are more successful when they are implemented following a methodology. We’ve outlined the most prominent methodologies and models to help you choose the approach that is right for your change.

    ADKAR Model for Change Management

    The ADKAR model describes five stages that individuals ideally progress through in order to successfully move through a change. It can be seen as a linear process.

    ADKAR goal

    Change Activation Toolkit
    modules that support this goal






    The ADKAR change management model was first published in the 1998 book “The Perfect Change” by Jeff Hiatt, founder and CEO of Prosci Research. See Hiatt. J.M. (2006) ADKAR: a Model for change in business, government and our community.

    External link:

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    Agile Management

    Agile Project Management and Agile Management are increasingly utilized by organisations outside of the realm of software development. Agile has been adopted by organizations to describe the process of developing new products rapidly through collaboration despite evolving requirements.

    The following 5 values should be adhered to by groups wishing to successfully develop products quickly that are fit for purpose despite continually shifting requirements.

    Agile Value

    Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

    Individuals & interactions

    Working software

    Customer collaboration

    Responding to change

    These 12 Agile Principles are the principles that groups should follow in order to achieve agile development capability.

    Agile Principle

    Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

    1. Customer satisfaction by rapid delivery

    2. Welcome changing requirements

    3. Working software delivered frequently

    4. Working software the principle measure of progress

    5. Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace

    6. Close, daily cooperation between business people & developers

    7. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication

    8. Projects are built around motivated individuals who should be trusted

    9. Continuous attention to technical excellence & good design

    10. Simplicity – the art of maximizing the amount of work not done – is essential

    11. Self-organizing teams

    12. Regular adaptation to changing circumstances

    Adaptive project life cycle, a project life cycle, also known as change-driven or agile methods, that is intended to facilitate change and require a high degree of ongoing stakeholder involvement. Adaptive life cycles are also iterative and incremental, but differ in that iterations are very rapid (usually 2-4 weeks in length) and are fixed in time and resources.

    – Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Fifth Edition

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    AIM (Accelerated Implementation Methodology)

    The Accelerated Implementation Methodology features 6 goals that are designed to be approached in a linear manner in order to achieve a successful change.

    AIM goal

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this goal

    Define the Implementation

    Generate Sponsorship

    Build Change Agent Capability

    Develop Target Readiness


    Develop Reinforcement Strategy

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    Beckhard and Harris Change Management Process

    The Beckhard and Harris Change Management Process is seven step linear process for implementing a change.

    Beckhard and Harris phase

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this phase

    Establishing the need for change

    Building the change team

    Creating vision and values

    Communicating and engaging

    Empowering others

    Noticing improvements and energizing


    Beckhard and Harris’ originally formula for change (sometimes attributed to David Gleicher) was a mathematical equation for describing how resistance to change can be overcome within an organization:

    Dissatisfaction x Vision x First steps > Resistance to change

    The formula suggests that the three components dissatisfaction, vision and first steps must be present in a sufficient quantity to overcome resistance to change.

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    Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Change Delta

    Boston Consulting Group’s ‘Change Delta’ approach to change management is a non-linear approach to change featuring four ‘Change Deltas’ that organizations require in order to effectively manage portfolios of change successfully. Each of the change deltas is an ongoing process and feeds in and reinforces the other deltas in building long lasting capability.

    BCG Change Delta factors

    Change Activation Toolkit modules
    that support these factors

    Executional Certainty

    Enabled Leaders

    Engaged Organization

    Governance & PMO

    External link:

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    Bridges Leading Transition Model for Change

    The Bridges Leading Transition Model for Change features 3 overarching stages as well as suggested activities within each of these stages.

    Bridges stage

    Specific activity

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this activity

    Letting Go

    Describe change reasons

    Communicate during transition

    Consider & encourage ‘endings’

    The Neutral Zone

    Listen, empathize, support

    Develop temporary roles

    Short term goals

    Don’t over promise

    Celebrate small wins

    Provide learning opportunities

    New Beginnings

    Model new attitudes & behaviors

    Be consistent

    Symbolize new identity

    Celebrate successes

    Bridges explores human behaviors relating to change and defines typical emotions individuals might exhibit during the change process.

    Bridges provides strategies on how to overcome some of the emotional barriers to change, without getting stuck. For example, in the New Beginning phase, there may be a great deal of fear of the unknown. One strategy might be to provide training on specific tools or educational materials. In the Neutral Zone, allow creative ways to think about work. During the Ending and Losing phase, people will feel committed and requires the need to sustain the new way of working, possibly through goal setting.

    See Bridges. W. (2009). Managing transitions: Making the most of change.

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    The Change Leader’s Roadmap

    The Change Leader’s Roadmap is a linear methodology for approaching organizational changes through a 9 phase process.

    Change Leader’s Roadmap phase

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this phase

    Phase I – Prepare to Lead the Change

    Phase II – Create Organizational Vision, Commitment & Capability

    Phase III – Assess the Situation to Determine Design Requirements

    Phase IV – Design the Desired State

    Phase V – Analyze the Impact

    Phase VI – Plan & Organize for Implementation

    Phase VII – Implement the Change

    Phase VIII – Celebrate and Integrate the New State

    Phase IX – Learn and Course Correct

    See Anderson, L.A. & Anderson, D. (2010) The change leaders roadmap.

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    General Electric Change Acceleration Process (CAP)

    The General Electric Change Acceleration Process (CAP) is a linear methodology for organizational change featuring seven phases.

    CAP phase

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this phase

    Leading Change

    Creating A Shared Need

    Shaping a Vision

    Mobilizing Commitment

    Making change last

    Monitoring progress

    Changing Systems and Structures

    External link:

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    John Kotter Eight Step Model for Change

    The Kotter Eight Step Change model is a linear change methodology that focuses on the importance of gaining buy-in. It is relatively simple to understand and works well in organizations that are organized in a relatively narrow organizational structure. One of its key selling points is its simplicity, memorable eight steps and basis in Kotter’s years of research into organizational change.

    Kotter model step

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this step

    Establish a sense of urgency

    Creating the Guiding Coalition

    Developing a Change Vision

    Communicating the Vision for Buy-in

    Empowering Broad-based Action

    Generating Short-term Wins

    Never Letting Up

    Incorporating Changes into the Culture

    See Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change and Kotter, J. (1998) Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail , Harvard Business Review.

    External link:

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    Kubler Ross Change Curve Model

    The Kubler Ross Change Curve model of individual change originally described how individuals react to grief, and has subsequently been applied to the context of individuals reactions to change.

    These 5 stages are a linear model that describes the journey that individuals undergo during changes. The aim for those leading changes being to ensure that the final stage of ‘acceptance’ is reached quickly.

    Kubler Ross phase

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this phase








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    Kurt Lewin Three Stage Change Methodology

    One of the most famous approaches to change, the Lewin Three Stage Change Management Methodology is a linear methodology describing 3 stages for approaching an organizational change with activities within each stage.

    Lewin stage

    Specific activity

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this stage & activity


    1. Determine what needs to change

    2. Ensure there is strong support from upper management

    3. Create the need for change

    4. Manage and understand the doubts and concerns


    1. Communicate often

    2. Dispel rumors

    3. Empower action

    4. Involve people in the process


    1. Anchor the changes into the culture

    2. Develop ways to sustain the change

    3. Provide support and training

    4. Celebrate success!

    The Lewing 3 stage approach is increasingly at odds with approaches that suggest that organizational change is constantly occurring and an ongoing process.

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    LaMarsh Managed Change™ Model

    The LaMarsh Managed Change™ model is a 4 stage linear methodology to implementing organizational changes.

    LaMarsh phase

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this phase

    Identify the Change

    Plan and Prepare the Change

    Implement the Change

    Sustain the Change

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    People Centered Implementation (PCI) Model

    The People Centered Implementation (PCI) Model proposes 6 interdependent critical success factors that enable organizations to achieve successful changes.

    Like BCG’s Change Deltas and Prosci’s Change Levers, this is an approach to important factors that contribute to organizational change capability rather than a step-by-step guide to executing changes.

    PCI Critical Success Factor

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this factor

    Shared Change Purpose

    Effective Change Leadership

    Powerful Engagement Processes

    Committed Local Sponsors

    Strong Personal Connection

    Sustained Personal Performance

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    Prosci Enterprise Change Management

    The Prosci Enterprise Change Management methodology is a linear methodology for approaching organizational changes. It features 3 main stages, each with activities within designed to guide the implementation of change.

    Prosci stage

    Specific activity

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this stage & activity


    Define future state

    Assess current state


    Engage primary sponsor

    Form & prepare project team

    Select deployment strategy


    Build project plan

    Create change management plan

    Create and present business case

    Implement integrated plan

    “>External link:

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    Prosci Change Management Levers

    In addition to both its Enterprise Change Management methodology and ADKAR model for individual change, Prosci suggests there are 5 change management ‘levers’ that are critical to enabling organizational change effectiveness.

    Prosci change lever

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this lever

    Communications lever

    Sponsor roadmap lever

    Coaching lever

    Training lever

    Resistance management lever

    The 5 Prosci change levers may be seen as analagous to BCG’s Change Deltas in that they constitute overarching interdependent capabilities that organizations should build in order to maximize their ability to make effective changes.

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    Viral Change Roadmap

    The Viral Change Roadmap is a linear change management methodology featuring 5 phases:

    Viral Change Roadmap phase

    Change Activation Toolkit modules that support this phase






    External link:

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    Note: Information regarding proprietary change management methodologies is provided here for information and comparison purposes only and is not endorsed by the publishers of such methodologies. Links to other websites are provided as useful sources of information. Inclusion of a link to another website does not imply endorsement of any kind. We do not monitor external websites and are not responsible for their availability, quality or content.